IT virtualization, the engine behind cloud computing, can have significant consequences on the data center physical infrastructure (DCPI). Higher power densities that often result can challenge the cooling capabilities of an existing system. Reduced overall energy consumption that typically results from physical server consolidation may actually worsen the data center’s power usage effectiveness (PUE). Dynamic loads that vary in time and location may heighten the risk of downtime if rack-level power and cooling health are not understood and considered. Finally, the fault-tolerant nature of a highly virtualized environment could raise questions about the level of redundancy required in the physical infrastructure. These particular effects of virtualization are discussed and possible solutions or methods for dealing with them are offered.

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In certain climates, some cooling systems can save over 70% in annual cooling energy costs by operating in economizer mode, corresponding to over 15% reduction in annualized PUE. However, there are at least 17 different types of economizer modes with imprecise industry definitions making it difficult to compare, select, or specify them. This paper provides terminology and definitions for the various types of economizer modes and compares their performance against key data center attributes.

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Standardized, pre-assembled and integrated data center facility power and cooling modules are at least 60% faster to deploy, and provide a first cost savings of 13% or more compared to traditional data center power and cooling infrastructure. Facility modules, also referred to in the data center industry as containerized power and cooling plants, allow data center designers to shift their thinking from a customized “construction” mentality to a standardized “site integration” mentality. This white paper compares the cost of both scenarios, presents the advantages and disadvantages of each, and identifies which environments can best leverage the facility module approach.

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The PGR-8800 is a microprocessor-based protection relay that limits arc-flash damage by using light sensors to rapidly detect the arc and then trip a circuit breaker. Phase current-transformer inputs are provided for current-supervised arc-flash protection and can also be used for definite-time overcurrent protection. Sensors, inputs, and trip-coil voltage are monitored to ensure failsafe operation. A secondary solid-state circuit provides a redundant trip path. A USB port is used for configuration and access to event logs. The PGR-8800 can be used on electrical systems operating at any voltage (AC or DC) since it does not directly connect to the system. The system is monitored with light sensors and optional current transformers (for AC systems) that can be selected for any current rating. The small size of the PGR-8800 allows installation in any switchgear cubicle, transformer compartment, or motor control center bucket

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Integrated Engineering Software

Electromagnetic induction heating occurs in electrically conducting materials when they are in the presence of time varying magnetic fields. This phenomenon is utilized in a wide range of industrial applications.

Simulating induction heating effects using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) software requires the solution of both electromagnetic and thermal field distributions. Often a transient solution is required to determine the temperature distribution as a function of time, and this can be complicated by the characteristic wide disparity between the time constants of the electrical and thermal systems.

This paper will illustrate examples of coupled electromagnetic/thermal field simulations for both steady-state and transient conditions.

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Our main offer is a six module Electricity Distribution course, together with two supplementary single module courses Power Transformers and Tapchangers and Substation Design, Earthing and Bonding, all of which are described below. They are designed for students who have prior theoretical knowledge of power or electrical engineering and wish to expand their understanding of the practicalities of electricity distribution at voltages up to 132kV.

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Device Substitution under IEC 61439. There is much debate over the issue of device substitution and the grey areas surrounding where this can and can’t take place for verified low-voltage assemblies. We have written an informative whitepaper providing an impartial view and clarity on where you stand in making an informed decision.

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In this special report from the publishers of IEEE Spectrum and COMSOL, see how electrical engineers are using multiphysics simulation for product design and innovation.

Featured areas:

- Metamaterials

- Electronics Cooling

- MEMS Energy Harvesters

- Nuclear Waste Treatment

- Biomedical Electromagnetics

- Smart Power Grid

- Flue Gas Cleaning

- Electromagnetic Shielding


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Industrial arc-flash events cause most electrically related accidents and fatalities among qualified electrical workers. Even if personnel injuries are avoided, arc flash can destroy equipment, resulting in costly replacement and downtime. In response, many designers are adding arc-fash relays to electrical systems. These devices greatly mitigate the effects of an arc flash by detecting a developing incident and sending a trip signal to a breaker to disconnect the current that feeds it. Arc-flash relays are complex devices; an understanding of the technical details of their operation and features is essential. This white paper illustrates a case study identifying key points of arc-flash relay technology so that specifying engineers, OEM designers, and end users can make an informed selection decision.

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Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) specialist, Borri has been one of the masterminds behind developing the greenest data centre in the world, which is on track to achieve record breaking power usage effectiveness (PUE) parameters below the value of 1.2. Eni is a major integrated energy company, committed to growth in the activities of finding, producing, transporting, transforming and marketing oil and gas, present in 85 countries with 80,000 employees. This exclusive case study illustrates the challenges, solutions and results in undertaking this major installation.

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